IELTS Writing Task 2 Video Lesson: Conclusion Linkers

Learn which are the best linkers to use to start your conclusion paragraphs for your IELTS essay. This lesson will show you which linkers to use and which you must avoid. Any mistakes with linkers will lower your band score so make sure you watch this lesson.


How to write an introduction
What to do with the last 5 mins?


hello in this lesson

we’re going to look at the best linkers
to use

to start your conclusion for your IELTS

task 2 essay now I have a list

of linkers on the board and I have seen

students using these linkers for their

academic essay now are they

good to use well I can tell you some

of these linkers are inappropriate

they should not be used for the

in your task 2 essay now

let’s have a look we’ll start off with
this one here

finally now I know your conclusion

is the final paragraph but finally

does not indicate a conclusion

we use this linker to show

the final main point so that means

we use this linker in the last

body paragraph so you have

firstly secondly finally

and after that you have your conclusion

so please do not use this

for your conclusion now another one

let’s have a look at in a nutshell now

in a nutshell the meaning of this
is to summarize all the main points

briefly so the meaning is correct

but this expression

in a nutshell this is informal

and we mainly use this with speaking

or with some informal writing so that

it is wrong to use this kind of linker
with an

academic essay for IELTS it’s something that the

usually notices and it will

be a problem for your band score so

don’t to use in a nutshell for you IELTS

academic essay another one

in general again it does not

really indicate a conclusion

so that leaves 3

linkers we’ve got in conclusion to

to sum up now although

to sum up is OK I

still wouldn’t recommend using if
somebody asked me

for the best linkers to start the

of course I would choose these

now a linker at the beginning

of the paragraph is there help

the reader to help the reader understand

the order of information and to

indicate what the information is so when
I am reading an academic essay

and I see in conclusion or

to conclude I understand this is the

and that is good for an academic

essay so in conclusion

to conclude please choose one of them

to start your conclusion for your task

essay well that’s all for this lesson

I’ll see you again in another IELTS lesson


  1. I recapitulate, is correct way to write?

    • This is not suitable. Just stick to the recommended linking words. Linking should not be creative or unique, it just needs to be accurate, clear and logical.

      • Hi, Liz
        Do I have to use the conclusion linker in the head of the last paragraph?
        Or can I argue the advantages of one point over the other first, then I give out my conclusion in the middle of the last paragraph?

        • You are being marked on your use of logical and appropriate paragraphs. This means your conclusion should be a separate paragraph. You are also marked on appropriate using of logical linking words. The words “In conclusion,” sign post to the reader that you are presenting your conclusion. IELTS Writing Task 2 is not about being creative or different, it is about being appropriate, demonstrating you know how to use paragraphs and linking words, and avoiding mistakes that will lower your score.

  2. Hi Liz,
    I have a doubt:

    How to use em-dash (punctuation used to add an idea) in IELTS? In normal MS word processor the length of the dash gets stretched automatically, but in the IELTS word processor how do I use em-dash : a double en-dash (–) ?

    This professor – from Math Dept. – is extremely brilliant.
    This professor — from Math Dept. — is extremely brilliant.

    • You should never use dashes in formal writing in IELTS. Either use commas or write a clause which will help your grammar score.

  3. Camelia says

    Hi Liz,
    Is “To reiterate” appropriate for the conclusion linker?


  4. can we use agglomerating or recapsilutaing to start conclusion?

    • You do not get a higher score because you use a different linking word. “In conclusion” can get you band 9. Both your suggestions are actually not appropriate for task 2. Either way, your task in preparing is to learn the linking words provided rather than look for other ones.

  5. Isha sharma says

    Hey Liz,
    I generally conclude by writing this sentence “All in all ,I pen down saying that……”
    Is this the right sentence because someone told me that it’s a wrong starting of sentence in conclusion.
    Plz reply

    • This is a formal essay, not creative writing. You are being marked on logical signposting and appropriate use of linking words. Do not attempt to learn fancy phrases because you think it might impress the examiner. It never works.

      • Isha sharma says

        Thank you Liz …I will work on it:)

        • Just remember that writing task 2 essays are not complicated. They are straight forward. Also, the best way to increase your score is to avoid errors – both language errors and errors in judgement. Keep that in mind πŸ™‚

      • Thank You Liz

  6. Is it formal to use
    Laconically, it can be reiterated that…
    Being a GT candidate i think ielts expect more from us?

    • It sounds as though you have memorised it to impress the examiner. It sounds unnatural and forced. A conclusion is a conclusion – to get band 9 all you need to do is be appropriate and use the right linking words in the right way at the right time. Linking words are not there to be creative with.

  7. Dharmik Bhatt says

    Hi Liz can we use ergo to conclude the task 1 ?

    • Not for an IELTS report. As there is no conclusion and only an overview, using “Overall” is the easiest way for the examiner to find the overview.

  8. Liz, I find it very interesting everything you have published. I think I have not been able to find the video or tips for “how to write the conclusion in Task II”, I have been able to find everything related to Task I, but not this specific part of the Task II. Could you guide me please to the material?

    • Click on “Writing T2” on the RED BAR at the top of the site for all my free lessons on writing task 2. For anything more, please see my Advanced lessons.

  9. Can I use
    Ergo,I would like to reiterate that
    What is the best way to conclude

  10. Bochra TARI says

    Hello Liz! Is it appropriate to use the subsequent linkers to begin a conclusion?
    To wind up,
    All in all,
    In overall terms,

    Thank you very much indeed!

  11. Naveena says

    Hi Mam,

    Can I use “To culminate” or “To conjecture” instead of “To conclude” ?

  12. Hello Elizabeth,
    can we write “pros and cons” instead of advantages and disadvantages??
    or is it too informal to write??

    Thanks in advance,

  13. How can we write good introduction and conclusion

  14. Simran says

    Hii mam
    Can i use for conclusion
    In the epilogue

  15. Tuan Anh says

    Is it okay if I use ‘All things considered, …’

    • The best way to indicate a conclusion is to use “In conclusion. IELTS writing task 2 is a formal essay, not creative writing. Using the most logical linking words to aid the reader is the best way forward.

  16. hey! liz I got confused when I read your tips, plz tell me how can I start a conclusion paragraph with In Conclusion or To Conclude plz make some lines regarding that words.

  17. Hello Liz
    Thank you very much for your valuable information.It helped me a lot.Anyway ,you just mentioned in this video that some linkers are inappropriate for academic essays(e.g:in a nutshel)Does it mean that those can be used in general essays (for GT module).I got little confusion on this as I will seat for general module soon.

  18. For me the world Liz now stands for love, just yesterday I told my GF, “I Liz you”.

  19. Muzamil Hussain says

    hi mam how are you ?
    please tell me that in 2nd paragraph of ielts i.e first body paragraph. can we start with the word
    “To Prologue, it has been recognized that …….”
    and in conclusion paragraph can we start with the word
    “To Epilogue, it can be concluded that …..”


  20. what about “by and large?”

    thank you Liz

    • It is informal. Don’t use it. Just use the linking words I have recommended. This isn’t creative writing – it is formal essay writing for IELTS.

  21. Sumarga says

    Hello Liz,
    How about ‘Wrapping up the ideas ‘?
    I frequently use this one

    • Use the linking words I have suggested. “wrapping up ..” is informal and not appropriate. The linking words I have suggested are fine for anyone up to band 9 – I’m sure that ‘s enough.

  22. Rajan joura says

    hello liz, thanks for giving value information because I often use …In a nutshell… to conclude
    again thanks…….

  23. Purvam says

    Hi Liz. Can I use ”To be crisp ” to start the conclusion?

    • No, you can’t. That is informal and IELTS writing is formal. Never use informal language.

  24. Rohit Malik says

    Hi Liz,
    how are you,

    can you send me some Important topics of task 1 and task 2 in general training writing module.

  25. can you help me in writing task 1 about pie chart

  26. Hi Liz,
    I want to ask if i can use the word To recapitulate in the begining of conclusion ?

    • Yes, if you want but it won’t increase your score. It is usually best to stick with recommended linking words.

  27. Mandeep Kaur says

    hii mam,
    “triggering the last bullet”, “closing the house of discussion” , “to cap it up” are effective conclusion linker ??
    plz ans me

  28. Hello ma’am,

    I want to ask you is it okay to write this following sentence as a beginning of conclusion?

    ” To summarize precisely and concisely it can be inferred that”

    • Don’t memorise long phrases – the examiner will not accept language you have memorised in order to get a higher score. Just use appropriate and correct language – In conclusion

  29. Hello Liz,
    Is it ok for my concluding sentences if I express my hope for the future about the given topic.?

    Thank you

    • It is common to write one final concluding statement to your conclusion which might be a prediction.

  30. Vishav Singh says

    Hello Liz
    What do you say, if i use “The holistic approach”. Is this a best word for conclusion linker ?


  31. Duc Nghi says

    In an IELTS book titled ‘Practical IELTS Strategies – IELTS Writing Task Two (Academic Module)’ by Andrew Guilfoyle, page 106, there is a list of signposts for conclusion :
    ‘1. To conclude,
    2. In conclusion,
    3. Concluding then,
    4. Clearly then,
    5. In short, / In brief,
    6. All in all,
    7. Summing up, / To sum up,
    8. My conclusion is that
    9. This is why
    10. Thus, / Therefore,
    11. Consequently,
    12. All this makes clear why’
    Besides (1) and (2), I wonder whether we should use from (3) to (12).
    I am very grateful to see your reply.
    Thanks you in advance.

  32. kunjal says

    hello , thanks for guiding us here i would like to say that as a part of conclusion can we go for TO an end/At least/to summarize

  33. FORTUNE says

    Hi Liz, I really do appreciate your work so far.
    My question: is it right to write address in writing task2?
    Many thanks.

  34. Mohamed says

    First, I would like to thank you for your valuable effort.
    I wonder why you did not include “Ultimately” as a liker for a conclusion.
    Or you just comment on the frequent linkers you have seen.

  35. Dear Liz,

    I have less than a month for my IELTS . How can i score a band 7.5 with such a time limitations. I am worried about my writing tasks in particular . what if i dont understand the topic ? what if i am not able to get anything on that topic? and it takes time for me to get passages properly. Do we have repetition of Topics for IElTs writinf task 1 & 2.
    What do you suggest for all my issues.

  36. karan chopra says

    Hi Lizz mam

    Is “To recapitulate or to encapsulate” suitable for conclusion

  37. Maliheh says

    Hello Liz

    Thanks for the great tips. I read all the comments to avoid repeating my question. A you said “to conclude” and “in conclusion” are the best linkers for our concluding paragraph, but if a majority of students use these two, don’t they turn out to be over used?
    I also have another question, I read your response to a comment here, that conclusion is a paraphrased term of the last sentence of intro?! Is that true?

  38. Dear Liz,
    I have difficulties with conclusion. The problem is that, I can not write conclusion part well. What should I do? Are there some techniques to write excellent conclusion?
    Thanks in advance.

  39. Dear Liz,
    Initially, I should be acknowledge by my special appreciation from the bottom of heart in the region of this website and your merits videos . You fanatically sacrificed yourself to read the riot act for ielts examination .
    From the most part we try to sit on the fence by being far from hackneyed expressions and write it on the safe side for all one is worth . Hereby, I m in favour of using some words that brings unexceptionable consequences for me hence can you affirmative my thoughts by fits and starts ?
    Can we use ” to reiterate ” instead of ” to conclude ” or into the bargain, can I write ” thus far or hitherto instead of ” so far ” . Thereupon, in order to have a ceremonious conversation in speaking module what’s your conception to us ? Can I say ,for example, “farewell” instead of goodbye ?
    Eventually, what’s your opinion to write colourful in writing module not by a long chalk ? For instance, ” to rivet your heed suffice it to say that … ” . I’m so sorry in the order of bad though droppings which wasted your valuable moments whereas I’m looking forward to reading your advises for improving my band score in that problems .
    With warmest wishes,

    • Don’t try to learn phrases in order to get a higher score. Use appropriate language only and language that is commonly used in the English language. “hitherto” has not been used in usual English for many many decades. The examiner will be able to spot language you have memorised and will not accept it. Use normal English.
      All the best

  40. Steven says

    Are tips for IELTs general and Acedemic task 2 same? I want to improve my score which was 6.5 in general Writing. I need 7. Are general/academic essays examined with different strictness level.

  41. Hi Liz, can i conclude the essay as” Finally it can be concluded by saying that …….

    hope you will …………..

  42. Hello Liz
    Can I use “All in all” as a conclusion linker? or is ti informal phrase?

  43. hello liz! πŸ™‚

    can i write ‘ Therefore I conclude…”

    thanks! ^^

  44. Hello Liz,
    can i write my conclusion like this….
    To recapitulate,let me reiterate the fact that

    • Never learn a long phrase to put in your essay. It will not help your score because the examiner will not accept it or use it to further your marks.

  45. Rozita says

    I use two other phrases for conclusion too, namely; ” considering pros and cons “& “considering the above statements,” ,what is your advice on them?
    Thanks dear Liz.

    • They will not help your score. Just write “In conclusion” and then summarise your ideas.
      All the best

      • Rozita says

        Dear Liz,
        Thank you. You teach so friendly and easy so that I feel confidence.It has been so disappointing for me that I am going to take the exam for 4 times , but I have found recently your website hopefully. I appreciate your attention to those who need the help in this way.
        Best Regards

        • Don’t forget that this is also an English language test and you must have the right level of English for the band score you want. I’m glad my blog is useful.
          All the best

  46. Gaurang says

    Hello Liz,
    I have read about another two conclusion linkers, “To recapitulate” and “To Encapsulate”. Will you please help me to know weather these are more academic or not to use in IELTS ?

  47. Hi liz i really like the way you teach. You are so clear and it seems like you are enjoying doing this. I am going to seat my IELTS exam very soon and i would to have some private lessons with you to get ready, especially for writing.
    Is there any change to have some lessons with you?

  48. Hi Liz,
    i want to ask …is this right that the conclusion of wt2 is jut a rephrase of last sentence in intro?
    Hoping for your immediate reply.
    Thanks a lot.

  49. Yifang Zhang says

    I have been tried many times in differnt ways to want to watch lesson videos. But i can not
    i do not know the problem that is the internet or other things. So,do you know how to solve it? I really want to watch your lesson videos.

    • If you are in China, there might be a problem because all my videos are stored on youtube. Unfortunately, I don’t know any way to solve that. I wish I did because there are many students in China who need help with IELTS. If you have any ideas, let me know.

  50. sayara says

    hello Liz,

    Is To recapitulate, a correct conclusion linker in Academic writing task 2.

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